Nutshell Grammar

Concisely explores important topics that you need to understand to get the most out of Satori Reader, with an emphasis on clear example sentences. (Ongoing--on brief hiatus)

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Episode 1
Welcomes you to the series and jumps right into our first topic.
Notes: Covers "the same," "the same as X," and "the same X as Y."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 24733
Episode 2
Takes up the main way of saying that two things differ in Japanese.
Notes: Also looks at the use of chigau to mean "wrong."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 9490
Pro
Episode 3
Lays the foundation for understanding the ubiquitous word for saying two things are alike.
Notes: You has a lot in store for us, but we'll take it one step at a time.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 6100
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Episode 4
Moves to the next step with you, using it before nouns.
Notes: Also considers the two slightly different meanings of a phrase like "a food like ramen."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 3784
Pro
Episode 5
Looks at a way to say that two actions occur at the same time.
Notes: Also considers whether the order of the two actions is meaningful (hint: it is).
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 3470
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Episode 6
Lays the foundation for understanding another use of you to talk about "kinds" or "sorts."
Notes: This is the basis for the expressions kono/sono/ano/dono you na X.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 3112
Pro
Episode 7
Builds on the previous lesson by using sentences before you na to create more elaborate kinds.
Notes: Also considers the difference between this and a plain relative clause.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 2688
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Episode 8
Takes up a special use of suru that turns up in expressions like oto ga suru, ki ga suru, and many more.
Notes: Also considers the question about the proverbial tree falling in the lonesome forest.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 2706
Pro
Episode 9
Applies what we have learned in previous lessons to adverbial phrases, allowing you to talk about "running like the wind" or "eating like a horse."
Notes: Also considers you ni following full clauses, allowing you to create phrases like, "as I explained yesterday..."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 2466
Pro
Episode 10
Introduces the use of no to stand in for a recently mentioned noun.
Notes: This will lay the foundation for an even more interesting pattern in the next lesson.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 2400
Pro
Episode 11
Introduces a new pattern that utilizes the no from the last lesson.
Notes: Includes pairs of questions and answers that utilize the new pattern.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 2027
Pro
Episode 12
Wraps up our discussion of no to stand in for a person, place, thing, time, or reason with lots of drill sentences.
Notes: Drills on reformulating both questions and statements.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1924
Pro
Episode 13
Builds on our previous discussions of you to introduce a new function: reporting information the speaker believes is reliable.
Notes: Also contains a lengthy note that breaks down the different permutations of past and present in "it seems" sentences.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 2009
Pro
Episode 14
Explores a special case of sentences using "reliable information" you.
Notes: A rule and a sub-rule! But don't worry. We'll talk it through together.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1826
Pro
Episode 15
Explores one of the two big uses of sou, to report hearsay.
Notes: Also introduces an expression that means "according to (a source)."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1758
Pro
Episode 16
Eases into this topic by exploring a simple pattern that works everywhere, then introduces a new verb form that acts as a shortcut.
Notes: Also includes a comparison of similar verbs that conjugate differently.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1976
Pro
Episode 17
Continues our discussion by diving deeply into the standard way to use the potential in sentences.
Notes: Also notes a different way to use the potential that is gaining acceptance.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1633
Pro
Episode 18
Takes up alternate forms of the potential for seeing and hearing, with discussion of why and when these forms are used.
Notes: Also looks at the common combination kikoete kuru.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1557
Pro
Episode 19
Introduces an important new word and looks at the most basic use of it, which lays the foundation for other uses.
Notes: Includes the patterns tame da, tame no (noun), and tame ni (phrase).
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1496
Pro
Episode 20
Expands on tame ni by looking at how it can connect two phrases: a purpose, and an action undertaken for that purpose.
Notes: Also contains a discussion of when this pattern is appropriate and when it is not. These principles will be elaborated on in the next lesson.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1439
Pro
Episode 21
Takes up the final big use of the multi-talented word you: to connect an action deliberately taken to an outcome that is not directly controllable.
Notes: Also compares and contrasts to the similar (phrase) tame ni (phrase) pattern.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1564
Pro
Episode 22
Builds on the previous lesson by looking at several key patterns this you appears in.
Notes: By the end of this lesson, you will officially know all the main uses of this powerful little word!
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1446
Pro
Episode 23
Takes up the first and easiest of the four main ways to form the conditional in Japanese.
Notes: Also includes related patterns that this to appears in, such as the pattern for expressing a hope or suggesting a course of action.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1479
Pro
Episode 24
Introduces the next of the big four conditionals.
Notes: Also includes a section on a special use of this conditional: "if it is X (that you mean / that you want to talk about)."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1341
Pro
Episode 25
Continues our conditional journey with a broadly useful verb ending.
Notes: Also offers an explanation for why calls to action mostly do not appear with this conditional.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1309
Pro
Episode 26
Introduces the next conditional on our journey.
Notes: Includes several common patterns this conditional is used in.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1319
Pro
Episode 27
Breaks down the places where -tara can mean "when."
Notes: Also includes a special rule about connecting two events in the past.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1171
Pro
Episode 28
Lays down the law on how to say that an action is prohibited.
Notes: Also closes a loop by connecting this pattern to the "may I" pattern. "No, you may not."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1266
Pro
Episode 29
Flips the script on the previous pattern, allowing us to say that if something is not done, it would be bad.
Notes: Also introduces two styles of contraction commonly seen in these sentences.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1183
Pro
Episode 30
Introduces the patterns for saying a person ought or ought not do something.
Notes: Also considers the difference between this pattern and another common pattern for suggesting a course of action.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1097
Pro
Episode 31
Looks at a word that helps you zero in on one thing by excluding it from a negative statement about everything else.
Notes: Includes a look at the "there is nothing but to do" pattern as well.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1120
Pro
Episode 32
Introduces the causative and shows how to derive it from the dictionary form of any verb.
Notes: Also briefly considers the philosophical question: What really is the difference between causing and allowing?
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1560
Pro
Episode 33
Explains how to use the causative in sentences, including different ways of naming the "causee."
Notes: Also considers ways of differentiating causing and allowing.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1147
Pro
Episode 34
Examines common combinations of the causative with the verbs of wanting, giving, and receiving.
Notes: Starts gently and works up to "We humbly receive your graciously allowing us to take the day off."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1040
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Episode 35
Looks at the last big use of the causative: speaking of making an intransitive verb happen, which essentially converts it into a transitive verb.
Notes: Also touches on an alternative form for the causative.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1023
Pro
Episode 36
Introduces "conjecture" sou and explains how to use it with verbs, conjugating adjectives, and na- and no- adjectives.
Notes: Also contrasts this sou to "hearsay" sou and to "reliable information" you.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 952
Pro
Episode 37
Looks at using sou phrases with na to describe a noun, and with ni to modify a verb.
Notes: Also looks at a pattern that appears to mean "doing a certain way" but which actually means "acting/behaving in a certain way.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 853
Pro
Episode 38
Takes up a few special rules about using sou with yoi, nai, and when making negative conjectures.
Notes: Also considers the difference between "It looks like it is not very interesting" and "It doesn't look like it is very interesting."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 808
Pro
Episode 39
Investigates an extremely common colloquial equivalent of you da.
Notes: Also helps to sidestep a common mistake learners make with this word.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 873
Pro
Episode 40
Introduces a word that marks the preceding as information that the speaker has heard from diffuse sources.
Notes: Also briefly discusses a secondary use to mark a conclusion being inferred.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 842
Pro
Episode 41
Follows up on the previous lesson with another important use of rashii as a suffix that means "exemplifying the characteristics of (the foregoing)."
Notes: Also examines how to tell apart the two uses.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 762
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Episode 42
Introduces a simple pattern for naming a list of activities or states, with several important uses.
Notes: Also considers some twists on the standard pattern.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 916
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Episode 43
Eases into an important topic with some brief theory before showing how to create the passive from the dictionary form of any verb.
Notes: You're learning the passive! This is big!
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 1003
Pro
Episode 44
Walks through conjugating the passive to other forms, such as the past, negative, and so on.
Notes: Includes a look at the progressive forms, which (just like on the active side) can mean two different things.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 853
Pro
Episode 45
Expands our capabilities by looking at using the passive in longer sentences.
Notes: Also briefly explains the meaning of the grammatical term "agent."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 834
Pro
Episode 46
Provides a chance to integrate and review before pushing on.
Notes: Provides 16 pairs of sentences that start easy and get progressively more complex.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 809
Pro
Episode 47
Builds on what we have learned so far with a new twist.
Notes: The difference between the direct and indirect passive corresponds roughly to the difference between "A ball was thrown to me" and "I was thrown a ball."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 841
Pro
Episode 48
Shows how the indirect passive can even be used with intransitive verbs.
Notes: This special use is almost exclusively reserved for human-on-human drama.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 760
Pro
Episode 49
Puts what we have learned in the previous two lessons to the test.
Notes: You're reaching the peak of Mount Passive!
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 770
Pro
Episode 50
Takes a look at a simple way to "upgrade" any verb to an honorific.
Notes: Also looks at two different ways to perform the upgrade when the verb is in a progressive form.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 734
Pro
Episode 51
Shows how to combine the causative and passive to create sentences such as the classic "I was made to eat nattou."
Notes: Also looks at the question of whether to use the short or long causative.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 670
Pro
Episode 52
Looks at a particle that allows you to list one or more reasons that all point to the same conclusion.
Notes: Also considers how shi differs from kara.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 682
Pro
Episode 53
Takes up the first three of five major uses of this ubiquitous pattern.
Notes: Using the pattern with verbs of motion and verbs of communication can give valuable information about the speaker's point of view.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 861
Pro
Episode 54
Considers two more figurative uses of the pattern.
Notes: This pattern visualizes change as movement coming toward the speaker.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 666
Pro
Episode 55
Offers 15 sentences showcasing all five of the different senses we've seen, in random order.
Notes: We hope the pattern is "coming to make sense" to you.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 644
Pro
Episode 56
Introduces the mirror pattern to -te kuru, starting with a literal sense.
Notes: Have no fear -- this one is much simpler!
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 750
Pro
Episode 57
Considers a more figurative sense: an action or change that continues into the future.
Notes: Wraps up with a review of both major senses.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 568
Pro
Episode 58
Explains a pattern that focuses on the state of an item, with (usually) no focus on who made it that way.
Notes: Also considers a variation that suggests who put things in that state.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 567
Pro
Episode 59
Looks at a simple pattern that focuses on the order of events.
Notes: Also considers how this differs from just using the -te form by itself.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 559
Pro
Episode 60
Examines a pattern for saying that you do a verb in preparation, in anticipation of a future need.
Notes: Also looks at a common contraction of the pattern.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 586
Pro
Episode 61
Introduces a secondary sense of the previous pattern.
Notes: Also discusses a recurring theme about the relationship between causing and allowing in Japanese.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 554
Pro
Episode 62
Explores how to use this suffix with verbs, conjugating adjectives, and na- and no-adjectives.
Notes: Also considers a common pattern for creating nouns that mean "eating too much," "sleeping too much," and so on.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 537
Pro
Episode 63
Introduces a special negative form primarily used to create phrases that mean "without (verb)ing."
Notes: Also discusses an additional purpose of this form used mostly in writing.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 736
Pro
Episode 64
Returns to a topic we discussed earlier in this series to look at one more sense.
Notes: Also looks at the question of if and when the particle ni is required after tame.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 521
Pro
Episode 65
Introduces a conjunction that indicates that something is contrary to the speaker's expectations or hopes.
Notes: Also gives an example of the kind of sentence noni cannot be used in.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 363
Pro
Episode 66
Introduces "the noni of lament" and considers several patterns it can appear in.
Notes: Also breaks down a common pattern in which the "B" part of the A noni B pattern is replaced by a reaction word.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 351
Pro
Episode 67
Introduces a pattern for saying that an action is just about to start, has just ended, or is underway at the moment.
Notes: Also considers how this pattern can mean that an action nearly occurred.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 388
Pro
Episode 68
Expands on what we learned in the previous lesson with a use that means "a scene."
Notes: Also looks at when this tokoro can be replaced by no.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 358
Pro
Episode 69
Introduces the first major use of hodo: with nouns to say "(not) as much as X."
Notes: Also walks through a simple exercise to help make hodo sentences easier to understand if you ever get stuck.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 356
Pro
Episode 70
Moves on to using hodo with phrases to describe a noteworthy or incredible extent.
Notes: Includes the cross-cultural classic "I was so embarrassed that I wanted to die."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 306
Pro
Episode 71
Looks at some additional very useful patterns using hodo.
Notes: Includes examples that mean "it was not as much as I thought / anticipated / imagined."
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 307
Pro
Episode 72
Wraps up our introduction to hodo with a useful pattern that links one increasing action or quality with another.
Notes: Wraps up with five meta review sentences.
Editions Status Total Readers
Standard Unread 369